YANKEE DISTRICT OF THE AMERICAN ROSE SOCIETY
A Publication of the Yankee District Rose Society Audrey Osborn, Editor January 2006
IN THIS ISSUE:
Consulting Rosarians .......................... 4
Consulting Rosarian School ................ 5
Judges Corner ..................................... 5
Update Bird Training .......................... 6
Frank Benardella ................................ 6
Convention Schedule .......................... 7
Treasurer Report ................................ 8
Rose Sawfly ........................................ 8
Yankee District Rose Show ................ 9
Enthusiasm ........................................ 9
Ordering Roses…………………….. 9
No free lunch....................................... 10
I was never so sick ............................. 11
Soil Testing ......................................... 12
Advance Planning ............................... 13
First Timer at Convention .................. 14
Roses in Review ............................... 14
Six Degrees of Separation ................... 15
District Director’s Message
2005 was a very exciting year in the Yankee District and there’s so much planned for 2006. This begins my sixth year as the Yankee District Director. What an incredible pleasure this has been and I am truly looking forward to many great activities in 2006.
The Yankee District is a remarkably robust and talented group of rosarians. We are all very proud of Mike Chute’s excellent work as Editor of the Beginner’s Column in the ‘American Rose’. Mike has brought a wealth of knowledge and encouraged a simple enjoyment that has been warmly welcomed. Great job Mike!
There are many people to acknowledge throughout the District who have earned our applause and respect. We have excellent writers like Ed Cunningham from Rhode Island who have received ARS awards. Congratulations to Dave Candler (Connecticut Rose Society) and Sari Hsu (Maine Rose Society) for their excellent web site awards. Our Yankee District website (www.arsyankee.org) created and maintained by Patsy Cunningham, was the 2004 Princess of all District websites in the ARS.
Carol Ann was the 2005 winner of the Yankee District Consulting Rosarian Award and Wally Parsons was the winner of the 2005 Outstanding Judge Award. Joe Kolis brought superb Hybrid Teas to our District Rose Show on the Cape in September and swept both the McFarland and the AARS awards. Dave and June Berg had exquisite miniatures and took the Moore Trophy. All of these individuals and the rose entries are truly deserving.
The most prestigious award is the Silver Honor Medal. This year the award was given to Audrey and William ‘Oz’ Osborn. Audrey and Oz have given so much to the Yankee District for so many years. Audrey has been editor of this newsletter and developed it into one of the best in the ARS. Together they formed one of the strongest societies in the district, the Lower Cape Rose Society. And, Oz has been our District Chairman of Judges for the last two years. As Chairman, Oz orchestrated one of the most successful judging schools we’ve ever held. Working with them on any project has been a joy and everything they work on turns out great. The Yankee District is truly blessed to have them with us. Kudos! (Continued on p. 3)
YANKEE DISTRICT ROSE SHOW
By Craig Dorschel
New Shrub Rose Award to debut at 2006 Yankee District Show! Our Yankee District rose show will be held in conjunction with the Arrangement Seminar and Lobster fest on September 9, in Harwich on Cape Cod.
Recognizing the importance of shrub roses in New England gardens, a new district challenge class and award has been established. Similar to the national Griffith Buck award, the class will call for 3 different shrub specimens (single bloom or spray, classic or modern), each in a separate container. Of course, the McFarland and AARS awards for hybrid teas, the Moore award for miniatures, and other horticultural classes will be offered as well.
Lobster fest Weekend has been a great event for several years now – a great opportunity to enjoy the pleasant late summer weather on the Cape and to mix with fellow rose lovers from around the district. Please come, and bring some roses to enter. (Helpful hint — cut back near the end of July/beginning of August and water, water, water, to have roses for September shows.)
ORDERING ROSES FROM CATALOGS
By Vin Ringrose
One of the delights of winter months is poring over rose catalogs for the next season. If you usually lose 15% of your standing fall population to our typically brutal winters, then new bushes are a necessary reality. This is especially true if you concentrate on exhibition hybrid teas, as Carol and I do. Donna Fuss asked me to run through the major catalogs that we deal with, with a few comments on each. All advertise in the American Rose.
EDMUNDS’ ROSES. The important catalog for exhibition hybrid teas. The greatest number of new varieties and the strongest, healthiest bushes.
JACKSON & PERKINS. You will receive many of their catalogs every year. They haven’t had a good NEW rose in several years, but their bushes are healthy.
WITHERSPOON ROSES. A Carolina company that has a somewhat limited list, but has a better exhibition roster, and healthy plants.
HORTICO. The Canadian giant. Catalog has to be purchased the first time, but one order gets you a free catalog the next season. They get new European roses before anybody else. Minimum order of 5 bushes. Small plants, but they are healthy and catch up by second season.
REGAN. A rose broker from California. The $5 for the catalog is refundable with purchase. The greatest number of varieties of any shipper since they deal with many growers. Twice we have found hard-to-find varieties only through them.
JOHNNY BECNEL ROSES. A Louisiana outfit specializing in new exhibitor varieties, mostly from Eddie Edwards. Large plants with foliage, shipped in 6” pots in May. Minimum order. Excellent plants on fortuniana rootstock, which have to be re-budded on multiflora to survive our winters, but our CAJUN MOON and POP WARNER arrived that way.
ROSES UNLIMITED. The only own-root company that we have dealt with. Excellent small roses in pots. The only source for some varieties. Minimum order of 3 plants. They catch up nicely, and they survive winters that budded roses do not.
PICKERING. Canadian roses that disappointed us on one occasion. Others that I know of have had success.
BRIDGES AND NOR’EAST/?’;/. We only grow a few minis. We have had good results with both companies. Now that NOR’EAST is no longer under the firm hand of the Savilles, our inclination is to go with BRIDGES. We have had no experience with Robbie Tucker’s ROSEMANIA, but others apparently have been pleased so far.
A final note. If you only need a bush or two in the spring, save yourself time, money, and a degree of uncertainty by foregoing the catalogs. Simply drive over to Bill Turull’s nursery in Manchester, GARDEN SALES, and buy his excellent potted roses. He has enough exhibition varieties to keep all of us happy, and plenty of fine garden roses as well.
By Johanne Patenaude
Translated by Marguerite Savidant
The rose sawfly, whose Latin name is Arge ochropa, belongs to a large group of insects called Hymenopters. It causes grief for rosarians. It is considered a secondary enemy of the rose but when it gets into the garden it is the rose production that becomes secondary. The rose sawfly then becomes our enemy number one.
It is difficult to become aware of its presence in the garden until eggs laid at night on the plants are noticed. The sawfly has an interesting piercing and cutting instrument. The female rose sawfly cuts a series of slits up and down the stem and deposits an egg in each. The egg laying process damages the stem leaving a hard brownish-black scar on one side, causing it to have a very distinct curve. This damage can often result in the flower bud not developing. A few weeks later the eggs hatch and the larvaes emerge. The larvae is approximately 25mm long, with black or orange head, bluish-green with yellowish-black along the back, and six rows of black shining bristly tubercles. It feeds on the soft tissues of the leaf leaving the veins, and skeletonizing the leaf. The rose stem sawfly overwinter under debris on the ground in the pupal stage. There are two generations per year, beginning of June and beginning of August.
Here are a few methods to control this sawfly:
1 – Put out baits made of a sweet mixture (sugar, molasses) to attract adults at the beginning of June and manually crush them. However, it is not 100% efficient and not always possible to accomplish, leaving some insects laying eggs and having a feast.
2 – Another method consists in mixing 10 to 15 ml of vegetable oil or light mineral oil with 5 ml of dish soap in 1L of water and spraying the leaves and the stems to prevent the laying of eggs. Applications should be done every 15 days (more often in case of abundant rain) from the end of May to the end of June, and again at the end of July.
3 - Cut off any affected stems as soon as noticed to prevent the eggs from hatching.
4 - There is the chemical method whereby every two weeks either Diazinon, Malathion, Pyrethrin, Carbaryl (Sevin) or insecticidal soap can be sprayed on the plants.
The following preventative measures are highly recommended.
v Remove dead leaves and all pruning debris
v Encourage natural enemies, birds in particular
v Avoid excessive watering
v Work the soil lightly in the fall and in the spring to destroy the pupae, especially if you encountered that calamity in your garden the previous year.
v Should some eggs hatch, you must crush the larvae to stop the cycle.
Good luck, and lets talk about the results again.
(How I kept my plants strong enough to compete well despite the Harsh Winter and Cold, Dark Wet spring of 2003)
Originally printed in the Connecticut Rose newsletter of the Connecticut Rose Society
Competing in the 2003 Ct. Rose Show was especially challenging this year. We all experienced a harsh winter combined with an abnormally cold and wet spring. Let’s take a detailed look at how each adversity affected our plants and what options we have to counteract.
HARSH WINTER: The cold weather would not quit and contributed to severe cane dieback including plant death for many roses.. Winter protection is a key – a mound of well draining soil or mulch is sufficient protection for most plants to survive. More elaborate methods including Styrofoam or rose cones are effective for more tender plants.
Due to the very early snowfall, I did not complete my winter protection,. So why did most of my plants survive?
INHERENT WINTER HARDINESS: This was not a factor for me, since I grow primarily modern roses, all of which are vulnerable to the cold. My climber and shrub roses had more cane dieback than usual.
PLANT DORMANCY: It is important to coax your plants into dormancy. In the beginning of September, I only remove the petals of all spent blooms and let the hips form. The plants will begin seed production at the expense of new growth which is the desired effect. Also, I do not fertilize after August 1st. I have a busy family schedule so I have cut back considerably on my plant maintenance during the past few years only performing essential activities., My soil tests showed high concentrations of phosphorous, potassium, and micronutrients so I needed to cut back. So last year I only fertilized with 10-10-10 on May 1st and ˝ dose of fish emulsion on June 1st. However, I mulched with grass in the spring which provided slow release nitrogen all summer long. Having said all this, I think this only plays a small factor.
DEPTH OF BUD UNION FOR GRAFTED ROSES
This pertains mostly to HT’s and some floribundas where the plant is grafted on the rootstock. I usually plant the bud union at soil surface level since I usually winter protect with a foot of soil. However, if you don’t winter protect, then you should consider planting the bud union several inches below the soil surface. This is less of a factor if you winter protect.
PRUNING TECHNIQUE: Look at your plants and see if new canes are originating from the bud union near the soil or further up the plant. If you have older plants, you may have new growth originating higher up on one or two older canes. If this new growth dies, then you will be left with old wood that is also vulnerable to cold weather. There was a good article in the ARS magazine this spring about rejuvenating your plant having old canes, This is a factor if you depend on new growth originating from older canes.
GRAFTED VS. OWN ROOT
Own root roses have a better chance of surviving cold winters. I was heartbroken when the snow melted and my miniature Behold was completely dead – at least what was visible to me. In fact, three of my mini’s appeared to have died. As I was preparing to dig them out in late April, I decided to just prune them down to the ground and wait until mid-May to make a decision. Fortunately, there was enough
snow cover to keep the root system from dying and the plants slowly began to grow. The blooms were smaller than usual but can you believe that a rose from each showed up on the table. Patience is a virtue!
SNOW FOR WINTER PROTECTION: We all had plenty of snow, but my gardens had at least twice as much snow protection. How can that be? Since my gardens are adjacent to my sidewalk and driveway, I add more snow using my snow blower. Incidentally, I wasn’t paying attention this winter and drove my snow blower too close to one garden and half-exposed several plants. They all died from exposure. I only lost one other plant. Snow for winter protection is very helpful, but don’t depend on it. Do you winter protection!
COLD & WET SPRING: In 2003, rose blooms were 7-14 days later due to the unusually cool and wet spring. In addition, it rained almost every day during the week of the show. How does one deliver quality blooms under these conditions? Getting your plants off to a good start is important.
SPRING PRUNING: I complete my pruning by the last weekend in April (minis by first weekend in May) and follow the standard pruning technique – removing the dead/damaged canes and then some shaping. I have having large plants, so I usually leave 2 foot canes on my HT’s and cut off a little off the top of my minis. However, my HT’s cane length’s only averaged about 6 inches this year. I’ve frequently read that you need to hard prune HT’s to one foot for competition size stems and blooms. Nature did what I have been reluctant to do.
FERTILIZING: You need to add a synthetic fertilizer (e.g. 10-10-10) near the end of April when you have a ˝ to 1 inch of new growth. Organic fertilizers are beneficial later once the soil has warmed up.
LATE HARD FROST: I recall reading that the frost free date in CT was May 9th. Well, we’ve had some frost after that date during the last two springs. I’m in a well protected area and haven’t been affected. If you are in a vulnerable location, you may want to prune and fertilize a week or two later.
PLANT VARIETY AND GARDEN LOCATION: We all have a few roses that we know will be the first to bloom in our garden. Have you noticed that these are located in one of the sunnier locations in your garden? If you have sufficient varieties of plants and garden locations, you will always have something a week or so before the show and maybe a few after the show. How often have I heard at the CT show that “my garden was at peak a week ago”! Since we had such a late bloom, where were all these peak blooms?
KEEP LEAVES HEALTHY AND MINIMIZE DAMAGE:
Prune to an outside bud. Keeping the cane growth spread out on the plant will help air circulation and minimize leaf damage from thorns during strong winds. Also, spray a fungicide /pesticide regularly or add a systemic to your soil (e.g. Merit) to reduce damage caused by insects.
PROTECTION FROM RAIN: This can be the biggest obstacle especially if you have a large garden. Who has the time and ambition to make “rose bloom umbrellas” and put them up/take them down at every threat of rain? The harder you are willing to work, the more you pray for bad weather because you this this will be an advantage for you. I do!
At a rose meeting a few years ago, someone presented a formula for success. I truly agree! Formula for success:
30% knowledge – 20% luck – 110% hard work
A First Timer’s View of an ARS National Convention
“The Rose Show was Spectacular” By Susan Meader
This was my first long trip since I got ‘sick’, five years ago. I was very nervous but I was also very excited. I had never been to such a big convention (for any reason) so I had no expectations. Because I tire easily I did not go on any of the ‘Garden Tours’ as I felt I would not be able to do the tours and still have enough energy for the Bar-B-Q at the Memphis Zoo, some of the lectures, the Award’s Banquet, and the Rose Show.
I freely admit I was not at all impressed by the Bar-B-Q at the Memphis Zoo. I went because I thought we would get to see some rare animals, e.g. the pandas. The event was held in the ‘Panda House’ of the Zoo. It rained very hard just before this event and, of course I know, there is no control of such a natural force but from first hand observation this event was not carefully thought out; 1. The walk from the bus to the Panda House was Very long, 2. There was no tour or even a quick look at any of the animals, 3. There was no place to sit, 4. There were no tables on which you could balance your plates, and 5. You had to queue up in a Very long line for your ‘Bar-B-Q’ and when you finally got it the food was mediocre at best.
The Award’s Banquet was also a disappointment. Again the food was marginal, and this really surprised me because the Memphis Hilton did so much else at the very top of the hospitality game. The ‘entertainment’, an Elvis impersonator, among other things, came before the awards and right in the middle of the meal. It would have been rude not to pay attention so I stopped eating my meal. After the Elvis impersonator’s first set the food was cold. Another point about the ‘entertainment’: because this entertainment was so long I ran out of ‘juice’ before the awards and had to leave.
I found time for, and was able to fit in, three lectures. On Saturday I went to ‘Marvelous Multiflora’ by Steve Singer and ‘Selling Rose Gardening’ by Phil Edmunds. On Sunday the lecture was ‘Sandy’s Picks for 2005’ by Sandy Lundberg. All of the lectures were informative and well attended. I only wish I could have fit more into my schedule but the Rose Show was my first priority.
……But the Rose Show
The show was so grand it completely filled up a huge ballroom. The competition was intense with each exhibitor bringing the very best he had to offer to the show.
The exhibitors had from 5:00 am, until 10:00 am, Saturday to place their entries. There was so much to do for the show many exhibitors were getting the preliminaries finished on Friday evening.
The best day to view the show was Saturday because all the exhibits were fresh and in place. The show was also open for viewing until 1:00 pm on Sunday. Even though Sunday was the ‘clean-up day’ many exhibits were still up and because there was so much to absorb I went back to view again.
Someone had a very good idea for the ‘Blue Ribbon’ table where winning blooms were exhibited. It was so low you could look directly down on the rose shape. A low, small table at the end of each row of exhibits would be very helpful for the judges in any other rose show.
There were 58 Classes (count them!) in the Horticulture Division. There must have been at least 30 entries in each of the 58 Horticulture Classes. The roses were so beautiful, the form so perfect, the freshness so extraordinary (considering when some of these blooms had to be cut) that when an anonymous viewer commented to me ‘they would never have shown that rose because it was not “perfect”,’ I was stunned. Maybe I’m naive or not critical enough but all the submitted roses looked good to me.
There was a class where one hybrid tea or grandiflora bloom was displayed in a picture frame with a black velvet backing. No foliage but sepals were allowed. If your show does not have such a class I think you should consider it. This class would be a very good addition for any show.
There were 35 Classes in the Arrangements Division. There were so many entries they went all the way around three walls of the ballroom. The nuances in each Class were so carefully articulated that it was very important to pay attention. This was the only way to be certain your entry would not be disqualified on a technicality before the ‘actual’ judging commenced. The arrangements were so impressive and imaginative that I am still inspired by them. The shapes, the containers, the roses, were so well thought out and so fresh that I really believe some classes should have had more than one winner. (On page 12 of the Nov., 2005 issue of ‘American Rose’ magazine, there is a good article concerning flower arrangement tips.)
I was marveling about the show to Cindy & Irwin Ehrenreich, from our local Lower Cape Rose Society, when Irwin pointed out to me a fact which should have been self evident, “This show is where you can really see the difference between the amateur and the professional.”
On the trip back to Cape Cod, just from the hotel to the airport, I meet Bob & Donna Martin. Robert is the author of “Showing Good Roses” and he is a nationally known rose aficionado. He was a judge at the show and he has a website at www.roseshow.com. They were very nice & gave me some very good rose tips in just that short time.
The convention was a worthwhile trip for me. I learned many things about rose cultivation, and meet many interesting people. The Rose Show alone made the convention worthwhile.
Nothing can compare to a national gathering to give you an entirely fresh and new perspective on the whole rose culture.
THE 2006 ARS YANKEE DISTRICT ROSE CONVENTION
CONSULTING ROSARIAN SCHOOL
MARCH 17TH, 18TH & 19TH, 2006
THE SEA CREST RESORT
NO. FALMOUTH, MASSACHUSETTS
You are invited to attend the Spring Rose Convention, Consulting Rosarian School and Annual meeting of the ARS Yankee District. Rooms have been reserved at the Sea Crest Resort, they will be offered at a special rate of $85 (plus tax) for all who make reservations prior to February 18th. Three days before and after the event, rooms will be $70 if you wish to extend your stay. Please make reservations directly with the hotel and mention the Yankee District. The hotel is located at Old Silver Beach on Cape Cod – 350 Quaker Road. From the Bourne Bridge and Cape Cod Canal: Rte 28 (Falmouth & The Islands) to Rte 151 exit, left at bottom of exit ramp, left at traffic signal (Rte 28A South) one mile to rotary, take first exit, then 1 mile to SEA CREST. Reservations - 800-225-3110
NAME (S) _____________________________________________________________
Please print name (s) as you would like them to appear on your name tag
STATE ____________ ZIP ____________ PHONE ______________________
Registration fee for convention No. ____ x $30.00 each $ _________
After March 1st No. ____ x $35.00 each $ ________
LUNCH (Jason Brown, Guest Speaker – Conard Pyle)
NY Deli Platter – Sliced Virginia ham, roast turkey No. ____x $16.00 each $ ________
and rare roast beef with Gruyere & Havarti-dill cheese
served with potato salad, lettuce, tomato, deli pickle,
assorted breads, rolls and condiment
Tuna Salad Platter – Served on a bed of tossed garden No. ____x $16.00 each $ _________
greens with fresh fruit garnish, assorted breads & rolls.
Lite lunch served with choice of soup or salad, dessert, coffee or tea
Pasta & Chicken Primavera - Penne pasta with broccoli & cauliflower florettes, No. ____x $30.00 each $ __________
Red peppers, carrots, shitake mushrooms and marinated grilled julienne of chicken
Tossed in garlic, olive oil and parmessan cheese
Broiled Chatham Schrod No. ____x $30.00 each $ ___________
**All entres are served with your choice of salad, chef’s starch of the day, fresh vegetables, and warm rolls and butter. The chef’s dessert tray will be presented tableside. **
All meal prices include tax & gratuity
SUNDAY BREAKFAST on your own – dine on premises
TOTAL AMOUNT ENCLOSED $ _________________
Everyone is invited and encouraged to attend the Yankee District Annual Meeting which will begin
promptly at 9:30 AM. Know what is happening in the District – Come with “Enthusiasm”
Please make check payable to LCRS Convention and mail check and registration form no later than March 1st to Audrey Osborn, 12 Scotch Pine Farm, East Harwich, MA 02645. For more information email Audrey at firstname.lastname@example.org or call 508-430-5329.
2006 YANKEE DISTRICT CONVENTION SCHEDULE
The Seacrest Resort, North Falmouth, Cape Cod, Massachusetts (800-225-3110)
Hosted by the Lower Cape Rose Society
Friday, March 17th - CONSULTING ROSARIAN SCHOOL 12:30 – 5:30
Dinner on own (nice restaurant on premises)
Saturday, March 18th – Location:
8:00 AM – 8:45 AM Registration
8:45 – 9 AM – Welcome by LCRS President, Greg Davis
9:00 – 9:45 Dave Simser Barnstable County Tick Specialist
BREAK : 9:45-10:15 Door prizes -
10:15-11:00 - Tim Kelly - Today's new England Weather by NECN Meteorologist
11:15 - 12:00 Linda Hilliard - Lyme Disease Associates of Massachusetts
12:15 – 1:15 Luncheon – Guest speaker Jason Brown from Conard-Pyle
1:15 – 1:30 Back from lunch – door prizes, raffle tickets for sale
1:30 – 2:30 Lynn Griffith - President, A&L Southern Agricultural Laboratories, Inc., Soil Testing for the Rose Garden
(See article by Lynn in this newsletter)
2:30-2:45 Break -
3:00-4:00PM- – Dr. Gay Freeman – Lyme Disease – Babesiosis from a doctor’s point of view
Julie Gammon, Dave Rogers, Audrey Osborn -Lyme disease and babesiosis from the patient’s point of view
6:00 Cash Bar
7:00 Banquet Dinner – Guest Speaker, Frank Benardella, Past President ARS, famous mini rose hybridizer, rose auction, Yankee District Awards
Hospitality Room open after dinner.
YANKEE DISTRICT CONSULTING ROSARIANS
David R. Long
John P. Mattia
Carol Ann Rogers
Rev. Ed Hempel
Ryk Tyszka Jackson
William “OZ” Osborn
Clarence E. Rhodes
MASTER ROSARIAN DESIGNATION
The American Rose Society, upon nomination by the ARS Yankee District, has selected three distinguished Rosarians to be designated as Master Rosarians for 2006. This designation recognizes Rosarians who have ten or more years of service, have demonstrated a continuing commitment to growing roses, as well as continuing enthusiasm in sharing rose knowledge. Master Rosarians for the ARS Yankee District, selected for this year are David Cannistraro, George Doorakian, and Art Emmons. Congratulations to our distinguished Master Rosarians! They join David Berg, Malcom Lowe, John Mattia, Clarence Rhodes, Donna Fuss, Michael Fuss, and Manuel Mendes who achieved this designation in 2005.
FROM WILLIAM PRINCE TO HERMAN MELVILLE
OR SIX DEGREES OF SEPARATION*
by Carole Cohen, Dublin, NH
*Six Degrees of Separation is a theory, first proposed in 1929 by a Hungarian writer, that anyone on the planet can be connected to any other person on the planet through a chain of acquaintances that has no more than five intermediaries.
To rosarians who are interested in the history of roses or who are especially fond of the old garden roses, the name of William Prince (1795-1869) is surely familiar. The nursery associated with his name was the first major commercial nursery in the U.S. and “Prince’s Manual of Roses,” written in 1846, was one of the earliest American books about roses. The Prince nursery had been founded in 1737 and endured for about 130 years.
The nursery was located in Flushing Landing in New York. (Flushing is now a section of Queens in New York City.) The Prince family were go-getters, and William’s curriculum vitae is clearly evident of this. He was deeply involved in grape culture, introduced merino sheep, traveled extensively in the West, and was one of the founders of Sacramento. However, Prince is best remembered today for his work with roses.
Prince was a successful nurseryman because he had a large circle of contacts and was always on the alert for something new. Sometime around 1830 he heard about a yellow rose from the garden of a lawyer, George F. Harison, who apparently discovered it in his backyard. Harison gave a slip to a local nurseryman, Thomas Hogg, who called it ‘Hogg’s Yellow American Rose.’ Prince changed the name to ‘Harison’s Yellow’ and this name persisted because Prince had better facilities than Hogg to propagate and sell plants. This hardy yellow rose was prized for its color and its sturdiness, and many pioneer families took slips of it when they went west.
Prince was also involved in the story of the Noisette—the first hybrid rose created in the U.S. Sometime in the early 19th century John Champneys, a merchant and plantation owner in Charleston, SC, crossed ‘Parsons’ Pink China’ with ‘Old Blush.’ The resulting hybrid, a large remontant shrub with small, light pink, fragrant blossoms, came to be called ‘Champneys’ Pink Cluster’. Philippe Noisette, the gardener of the Botanical Society in Charleston, received seeds or seedlings from Champneys and bred a new variety, which he sent to his brother in France. Here it acquired several new names, all with “Noisette” in them. Where does Prince fit into this? We know that Champneys corresponded with Prince because Prince’s son said his father had received a number of well-grown plants of ‘Champneys’ Pink Cluster.’ It’s possible that Champneys had originally bought ‘Old Blush’ from Prince and that he sent the new plants to him to show the results of his work. Subsequently Prince shipped cuttings to England, and in 1818 a London nursery had on its list of roses one called ‘Champigny’. This was most likely the same rose since errors and distortion of names were very common in the horticulture industry of those times.
Another interesting connection that Prince had was with Thomas Jefferson, who was a passionate collector of new and unusual vegetables and ornamentals. In 1791 Jefferson ordered from Prince two each of ‘Old Blush’ and ‘Parsons’ Pink China’. There is no evidence, however, that Jefferson was aware of their significant offspring.
In 1819 a child was born in Manhattan not too many miles away from Prince’s nursery. He became, in the opinion of many scholars, the greatest and most original of American writers, and the one we would least expect to have any connection with roses. He was Herman Melville, author of Moby Dick. Most readers think of Melville as exclusively a writer about the sea. It is true that his first six novels had the sea and ships as their setting, but after Moby Dick Melville turned to other subjects and literary forms. What is not commonly known is that Melville wrote a great deal of poetry, including a series of rose poems.
There are thirteen poems in all, none of them published in Melville’s lifetime. Like so much poetry about the rose, the flower is used as a symbol of life’s brevity—the “gather ye rosebuds while ye may” motif. Melville’s poems are much more complex than most rose poems; the language is dense and the images are startling. In one poem, the narrator meets a gardener’s boy taking an armful of roses to a burial vault. When asked why he is doing this, the boy says they are for a wedding and the tomb is a good place to keep them fresh:
Yea, for against the bridal hour
My master fain would keep their bloom;
A charm in the dank of the vault there is,
Yea, we the rose entomb.
Did the creator of the awesome White Whale actually know anything about growing roses? The above poem certainly suggests he knew about conditioning roses. The Melvilles lived for many years in New York City in a townhouse that had a small, south-facing backyard. When Melville’s wife gave him Samuel Hole’s A Book About Roses for his 65th birthday, he was inspired to dig up the yard and plant roses. According to his oldest granddaughter, Eleanor Metcalf, he loved growing roses. It is also known that he regularly sent rose petals to a friend whenever he corresponded with her.
When I read about Melville growing roses, I wondered if he might have bought his plants at the nursery of William Prince. I searched through the most recent and complete biography of Melville and discovered that indeed they had actually met. In the late 1850’s Melville lectured throughout the Northeast on various subjects such as travel and art. On one such occasion he lectured in Flushing, and Prince’s son was chairman of the lecture committee. The Princes, according to a letter preserved by the Melville family, entertained the author “overnight and part of a day and presented him with a bouquet of lovely flowers.” The letter does not say if there were roses in the bouquet. While there is no documentation that Melville bought plants from the Prince nursery, it is certainly possible that he did.
The links from William Prince to Harison, Champneys, Noisette, Jefferson, and finally to Melville, a very unlikely rosarian, may not conform strictly to the “six degrees” theory, but it is nevertheless curious to consider how the passion for roses can be shared by nurserymen, presidents, and writers
AMERICAN ROSE SOCIETY YANKEE DISTRICT
CONSULTING ROSARIAN SCHOOL APPLICATION
Please Print: _____________________________________ Date:___________
Current C.R. __________ New C.R. Candidate __________ Neither ____________
(must be a member of ARS for past 3 years)
City, State, Zip: __________________________________________________________
Phone: __________________________ Local Society: ___________________________
ARS District: ___________________________
NEW CANDIDATES must submit three (3) letters of recommendation from any three (3) CRs and a resume to their home District CR Chairman, on the official form, (which will be sent to you upon receipt of this application) in advance of attending the school. You will receive a letter of verification from the Chairman which must be presented at the school.
CURRENT CRs are required to take the school and pass the test and after that time, attend a seminar or school every four (4) years to remain on active list. The school and ‘open book’ test are based on the TEXT SECTION only of the CONSULTING ROSARIAN MANUAL.
CR MANUALS are available from ARS Headquarters for $15.00 + $2.00 shipping
The past three consecutive years of membership in ARS will be verified with ARS Headquarters for all new candidates and current requalifying CRs before appointment or re-appointment is official.
THE SCHOOL IS OPEN TO ALL ROSARIANS
Send this completed form to Jerry Cinnamon
P.O. Box 537
Unity, Maine 04988
Consulting Rosarian School
Jerry Cinnamon CR Chair, ARS Yankee District
The joy of growing roses! The beauty of the flowers and their rich fragrance lures us into growing our first rose plants. Then we begin to wonder how to make the plant thrive. We learn about good growing conditions: fertilizing, watering, and improving the soil. Soon our garden grows and neighbors and friends visit starting in late June and early July to share this beauty with us. They are intrigued and want to know if we will share our rose growing secrets. The secrets are few and basic.
On March 17, 2006, from 1 to 5 PM the basics of rose cultivation and care are the subject of a Consulting Rosarian School, sponsored by the Yankee District of the American Rose Society and the Lower Cape Rose Society. In a four hour seminar you will learn about Basic Rose Culture, Soils & Water, Fertilizers, Garden Chemicals and Safety, and Insects and Diseases. Attending this school will prepare you to become an American Rose Society Consulting Rosarian that will enhance your knowledge of growing roses and prepare you to work with friends, neighbors, and the rose growing public as they seek to learn about growing roses. The school ends with an open book test that will certify you as an American Rose Society Consulting Rosarian.
To become an ARS Consulting Rosarian you must:
Be a member of the American Rose Society for three consecutive years
Be an active member of a local rose society
Have grown roses of various types for at least five years and should be knowledgeable in all equipment and materials related to rose culture
Provide letters of recommendation from any three Consulting Rosarians
Attend an ARS school/workshop for Consulting Rosarians and complete an open book examination based on the material contained in the Consulting Rosarian
Know and be willing to live up to the Consulting Rosarian Guidelines.
To apply for the school, new candidates and current CRs please fill out the attached form and send it to Jerry Cinnamon, CR Chair Yankee District at PO Box 537, Unity, Maine 04988 or download the attached form, fill it out and send it to email@example.com. New Candidates will be sent an official form upon receipt of this application to obtain three (3) letters of recommendation and a resume to be returned to the District Chair. Current CRs attending the school will meet requirements for a four year period.
I WAS NEVER, EVER SO SICK IN MY LIFE
By Audrey Osborn, LCRS
Bull’s eye. symptoms, deer ticks. These are words we associate with Lyme Disease. Deer ticks carry Lyme disease and most gardeners are aware of the precautions which should be taken when working outdoors in areas habitated by deer. Tuck your pant leg into your socks, wear insect repellant with adequate concentration of DEET, shower and inspect your skin at the end of your day outdoors, launder your work clothes immediately. I did all these things, but this past August when I was diagnosed with “Babesisosis” I needed to get some answers. As a female gardener in my mid 50s, working full-time as an RN on the 3-11 shift, I ignored my extreme tiredness. I would go to bed after midnight, and be back in the garden by 8:30 AM, working until 1:30 then shower, get dressed, eat lunch and head to work. My sleep was interrupted every night – I would awaken with my pajama top drenched with sweat, something I attributed to “hot flashes”. These were probably early symptoms of babesiosis, which has an incubation period of up to nine weeks. I am so very thankful that my primary care nurse practioner, Chris Reid, ordered the correct blood tests for me, and that I was diagnosed right away. A friend of mine went undiagnosed for a few months, and wound up hospitalized in critical condition needing transfusions and IV drug therapy.
Babesiosis is caused by a protozoa, similar to malaria. I was initially treated with Doxycycline, then Clindamycin and Quinine for ten days (until I got a wicked reaction to the Quinine), finally I was on Mepron and Zithromax twice a day for seven weeks. I had six blood tests in three months. My platelet count was very low – an alarm value, and my hematocrit level was down. I was out of work for seven weeks, and when I returned to work I was still on antibiotics. Babesiosis can be an extremely dangerous (sometimes fatal) disease in immunosuppressed individuals, the elderly and people without spleens. How many gardeners have ever heard of “babesiosis”? Please come to the Yankee District Convention in March – where we will have a tick specialist and a physician educate us on the seriousness of ticks, mice, deer, Lyme disease and Babesiosis.
Human babesiosis, caused by Babesia microti, was initially described in the eastern United States in 1970 in a woman vacationing on Nantucket Island, MA. With few exceptions, almost all subsequent cases were recorded from islands in the northeastern US and Cape Cod, MA until this illness was diagnosed in 13 patients living in New London County, in southeastern CT. B.microti was isolated from white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, captured from 1988 to 1990 in the yards of patients. Babesiosis also was diagnosed in persons living in Wisconsin and in New Jersey who acquired the organism locally. The number of cases of babesiosis reported by health departments on their web sites and by personal communications in MA, RI, and NY was 330 from 1988 to 2002, 121 from 1994 to 2002, and 542 from 1986 to 2001, respectively. The number of cases reported by the New York City health Department from 1991 to 2000 was 75. From 1991 to 2000, babesiosis was diagnosed in 230 persons residing in New London County and adjacent Middlesex County, CT. Fifty three additional cases were reported in five other counties in CT., but epidemiologic data did not indicate that these infections likely were acquired within CT. We now note a new and distinct geographic focus by reporting the isolation of B.microti from rodents captured in the yards of two patients in whom babesiosis was diagnosed at Greenwich Hospital in 2002. These patients lived in Greenwich, CT., which is located in Fairfield County in the extreme southwestern part of the state. Neither patient had traveled outside of the immediate area of Greenwich, CT., before onset of illness. Rodents were also trapped in the yards of two additional patients in whom babesiosis was diagnosed. These two patients had traveled to Rhode Island shortly before becoming ill. Patients became ill from June 23 to July 7, 2002, and none reported a tick bite.
Attempts to trap small mammals on the properties of the four patients were made on July 22, 23 and 29, 2002. Rodents were captured in Sherman box traps baited with peanut butter and apple. Approximately 0.3mL of blood was drawn from the heart of each animal into a syringe coated with heparin or uncoated. Blood was kept on ice in the field and then returned to the lab. A 3 to 5 week old male Syrian hamster was injected intraperitoneally with 0.1mL of each blood sample.
Blood smears were obtained from a drop of blood taken from the tail of each hampster on weeks 3 to 6 after injection. Blood cells were stained with Giemsa and examined for B.microti at a magnification of 1,008x. Hamsters were considered uninfected when no parasites were found in 75 fields of stained erythrocytes.
B. microti was isolated in rodents captured at the residences of two of the patients who did not travel outside of the Greenwich area 6 weeks before onset of illness. Blood from two of three white-footed mice and from the two eastern chipmunks, captured in the yards of the patients, produced infections in injected hamsters. Infections did not develop in hamsters injected with bloom from 10 white-footed mice captured at the residences of two patients who visited Wakefield and Charlestown, RI shortly before becoming ill.
B.microti is prevalent in rodent populations in Greenwich, CT, and causes human disease. Establishing evidence of B.microti in rodents and documenting this protozoan parasite as the cause of human disease in Greenwich are important. Relatively high populations of the vector tick, Ixodes scapularis, are present in Greenwich and nearby towns. In 2002, the health departments of Greenwich, Stamford, New Canaan and Darien submitted 1,671 I. scapularis ticks removed from persons to the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station for identification and testing for Borrelia burgdorferi . Two hundred and thirty cases of Lyme disease were reported from these four towns in 2002 (CT. Dept of Public Health) With such extensive human exposure to ticks and a relatively large number of Lyme disease cases in these four towns and elsewhere in Fairfield County, the number of cases of babesiosis is likely to increase appreciably in the future.
B.microti has been transmitted through blood transfusions in Connecticut. Blood collection agencies in southwestern Ct., and adjacent Westchester County, NY should be aware of the possibility that blood donors could be infected with this pathogen. Physicians should also be alert to the possibility that patients could be coinfected with the etiologic agents of Lyme disease or human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Some patients in whom Lyme disease was diagnosed have been simultaneously infected with B.microti.
The above article was found online and was written by John F. Anderson and Louis A. magnarelli, CT. Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven. CT.
The Babesia microti life cycle involves two hosts, which include a rodent, primarily the white-footed mouse. During a blood meal, a Babesia infected tick introduces sporozoites into the mouse host. In the blood, some parasite differentiate into male and female gamates. The definitive host is a tick, in this case the deer tick, Ixodes dammini (I. scapularis) Humans enter the cycle when bitten by infected ticks. During a blood meal, a Babesia – infected tick introduces sporozoites into the human host. Multiplication of the blood stage parasites is responsible for the clinical manifestation of the disease. Humans are, for all practical purposes, dead-end hosts and there is probably little, if any, subsequent transmission that occurs from ticks feeding on infected persons. Transmission (human to human) is well recognized to occur through blood transfusions.
NOTE: Deer ticks are the hosts upon which the adult ticks feed and are indirectly part of the Babesia cycle as they influence the tick population. When deer populations increase, the tick population also increases, thus heightening the potential for transmission.
Learn the association between the common white footed mouse, the deer tick and a deer in Babesiosis and Lymes disease at the Yankee District Convention – March 18th, at The Sea Crest Resort, Falmouth, MA.
DISTRICT DIRECTOR’S MESSAGE
CONVENTION HAPPENINGS: (continued from Page 1)
Many of us attended the convention last March in Waltham, MA and had a great time. The New England Rose Society was a super host and it was great to see so many people from around the district pitching in for a great time.
Our March convention comes at an excellent time each year. Being the third weekend in March, the convention is a terrific way to begin a new rose season. I’m hoping we will see many of you this March at the annual Yankee District Convention in Falmouth, Cape Cod. You’ll find many details about the convention in this newsletter, including excellent speakers, lots of fun rose talk and even some very new rose plants to consider buying for the new season. This convention will be quite special for several reasons. It is hosted by the Lower Cape Rose Society, so we are certain it will be a fun and well-planned event. Events begin Friday afternoon with a Consulting Rosarian school at the hotel. Friday night, please join us for a fun night of “wine tasting” in the Hospitality Room. Many Yankee District Rosarians have discovered they share a fondness for both “Wine and Roses”. This will be a very simple affair. Simply bring your favorite bottle of wine and come share it with some like minded friends. For those who wish to taste but don’t bring wine, a small fee will be charged. The Hospitality Room is open to everyone at no charge and is always a hub of good rose and gardening buzz.
Saturday is packed with remarkable programs and speakers. Excellent planning has produced a very full agenda which should be enjoyable for all gardeners and rose growers. The annual Awards Dinner and rose auction on Saturday night, followed by a late evening of rose chat in the Hospitality Room. (I sometimes think rose nuts like to talk about roses as much as grow them!)
You are all invited to the Yankee District Council meeting on Sunday morning at 9:30 A.M. .
In September we’ll all head back out to Harwich Port on The Cape for the Yankee District Rose Show and a special “Arrangement Seminar”. Details are still being worked out, so be sure to ask in the spring for final details. The Rose Show and Lobster fest will be held on Saturday, September 9th. Audrey, Oz and the generous people of the Lower Cape have developed an extra-ordinary event. It really is no wonder the Osborns won the Silver Honor Medal last year.
Thanks again to everyone for all of their support and friendship and I am looking forward to seeing you soon.
What ultimately matters to growers and farmers is what is the current nutrient status of the soil, and what is the safest and most economical way to supply nutrients
By Lynn Griffith
Soil testing in one form or another has been around since the 1840's. The procedures were rather primitive until about the 1920's, at which time significant advances in soil testing technology were realized. Soil testing may be defined as any physical or chemical measurement of soil. Growers in most parts of the world Utilize soil testing to one degree or another, and for various reasons.
One surprising fact is that of soil testing laboratories generally don't actually test soil. They test extracts of soils at least when performing chemical tests. Soil samples are generally mixed with an extracting solution of some kind. The mixture is then shaken and then filtered resulting in a clear liquid extract which is then subjected to various chemical tests. The extracting solution may be distilled water, although with most laboratories one or more dilute acids are used to extract nutrients from soil samples. The theory is you want your extracting solution to remove from the soil those nutrients that are reasonably available to plants. Nutrients that are in chemical forms that will never be available to a plant are not really of any use to the soil testing lab or the farmer. At the same time, distilled water as an extracting solution only tells you what is available today, and doesn't give you much of an idea of what the reserve fertility levels are. Therefore, using dilute, weak acids as extractants will generally reveal levels of nutrients in forms that will likely be available to the plant.
Numerous soil extraction methods exist, though there are six or eight extracting methods that are the most popular throughout the world. The trouble is, these different extracting solutions vary in the amount of nutrients they pull out of a soil, and therefore if you send the same sample to different laboratories that are using different procedures, the test reports will reveal different numbers. Another source of variability in the numbers may be in the units that the laboratory is reporting. Some laboratories report in parts- per million, others report in pounds per acre, others in milli-equivalence and still others in micromoles. All this variability certainly generates confusion.
An obvious question that growers frequently ask is "Why don't laboratories just use one standard testing method and report format". There are three principle reasons for this. One is that different soil testing procedures work better in different types of soils in predicting crop response. A testing method for one type of soil might work well, but it may perform poorly in completely different type of soil in terms of predicting crop response. Secondly, many laboratories which have been in business for a number of years have accumulated a great deal of data with one extracting
method, and they are reluctant to change methods once an extensive data base has been established. The third and more complex reason is the soil testing values should really be considered as a relative index, than as an absolute value. The Fahrenheit and Celsius temperature scales are two examples of indices used to measure temperature. Forty degrees might be cold under one scale, and quite warm on the other scale.
What ultimately matters to growers and farmers is what is the current nutrient status of the soil, and what is the safest and most economical way of supplying nutrients to the plants. Growers who jump around and use different laboratories to do their soil testing generally become confused by the differences in methods and units. My suggestion to growers in general is to find a laboratory that you are comfortable using and stay with them. Some important factors in choosing a laboratory are quality of data, price, speed, testing method, and ease of understanding the report. In general, growers are urged to find a laboratory they are comfortable using and generally stick with them.
Let us then get back to the original question in the title of this article: Why test soil? A major use of soil testing is to evaluate the suitability of soil before planting a crop, and to use soil testing to help plan the fertilizer program. Soil testing can also be used in order to select what crops should be grown on a particular piece of ground. Secondly, soil testing can be used to monitor the growth and quality of a crop. Soil test levels can often be correlated with plant growth, yield and quality. Soil testing can also be utilized to fertilize efficiently in order to help minimize environmental concerns.
A final reason for utilizing soil testing is that growers generally don't like surprises. When crop difficulties occur, soil testing is often a key factor in the diagnostic process. Soils can be tested for numerous things today including nutrients, heavy metals, pesticides, nematodes, physical structure, microbes, etc. The range of services from public and private laboratories is often extensive. While soil testing is not a substitute for good varieties, good weather, and good culture, it remains a useful tool for growers in many types of industries in producing and maintaining quality plants.
Happy Birthday, Ralph Moore “The Father of the Mini Rose”
January 14th – 99 years old
How Like A Rose
They say, or so I have heard,
“A pretty girl is like a melody,”
When she smiles the day lights up;
I hear the sounds of music,
Some soft muted tones at times,
Like the sweet smell of roses,
“Just a waitress,” you may say –
Or an angel in disguise?
Just how like a rose she is,
Quietly she moves about
To do all her daily tasks,
Like a rose about to bloom,
Then one day, the rose I see,
A beauty that’s now full blown,
And that rose now smiles at me,
Like an angel in disguise!
The Yankee District Rose Window
Audrey Osborn, Editor
12 Scotch Pine Farm
East Harwich, MA 02645
©Copyright 2005, all rights reserved. Yankee District of the American Rose Society & Patham